The first order of Classical architecture (Doric) has been described as masculine and plain. This approach towards constructing temples and other buildings started in mainland Greece. In this article, you will learn about the remaining four orders, including one that developed in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands.
The Ionic Order
The Ionic order developed in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands shortly after the Doric order , estimated at emerging around 560 BC. The masculine Greeks viewed this order as being ‘feminine’ because the columns were more slender. They also were less tapered than Doric columns. Ionic temples showed a decorated base and had 24 flutes. A feature that started to emerge was the scroll (also known as a volute). This feature was usually carved with a motif called ‘egg and dart.’ Shining examples of the Ionic order are seen in the Erechtheum and the Temple of Athene Nike , both found on the Acropolis in Athens.
The Corinthian Order
The Corinthian order, which was established around 425 BC, was known for its high level of dÃƒÂ©cor. There is a legend associated with this order that begins with an Athenian sculptor named Callimachus. It is said that he passed by a tomb holding the body of a recently deceased Corinthian girl. The top of her tomb was adorned with a basket filled with her favorite belongings that her nurse had placed. The basket was covered with a tile and underneath; there was an acanthus plant. The shoots of the plant went through the sides of the basket. Callimachus was latched onto the sight of the interwoven basket and tendrils, which gave him inspiration to design the Corinthian capital.
The Ionic capital was created so that it was viewed from only two sides, but with the Corinthian order, people could take in the dÃƒÂ©cor from all four angles. The oldest example of Corinthian construction is the Monument of Lysicrates, which dates back to 334 BC. The structure is situated in Athens. In later times, the Romans embraced the Corinthian style more than any other order.
The Composite Order
The ancient Romans were known for preferring a more elegant and embellished style of architecture than the ancient Greeks. The Romans paid less attention to how geometrically precise they were with their construction. Where the Greeks had lintels, the Romans used arches. They also used more decoration in their style of architecture. The Composite order of the Romans blended the scrolls of Ionic styles with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian to create decorative structures that had high columns.
The Tuscan Order
A simplified version of the Doric order was seen in the Tuscan order , another style associated with the ancient Romans. Tuscan columns used the Doric capital style, but positioned their columns on a base. The Tuscan order also did not utilize fluting as one of their features. The columns were the least tallest of the orders.