Viziers of the New Kingdom
Ancient Civilizations 2/11/12
By: Yona Williams
The New Kingdom included the 18th to 20th Dynasties in ancient Egyptian history with rulers such as Amenhotep, King Tut, and many Ramses. In this article, you will learn about some of the right-hand men that served the pharaohs of the New Kingdom.
During the reign of Hatshepsut in the 19th Dynasty, Hapuseneb was the High Priest of Amun that served a pharaoh known as the "Foremost of Noble Ladies." She was the fifth ruler of the 18th dynasty and is considered by some historians as one of the most successful of pharaohs. Hapuseneb was born to Ah-hotep, who belonged to the royal harem and Hapu, who was Lecture Priest of Amun. In his family, he had a brother named Sa-Amun, who was a scribe and 1st sealer of the god Amun. Hapuseneb served as High Priest during Year 2 to Year 16 of Hatshepsut.
When Hapuseneb died, he was laid to rest in Upper Egpyt in TT67, which was situated in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna Ã¢â‚¬â€œ part of the Theban Necropolis on the west bank of the Nile. When he was vizier, he held the following titles: "Hereditary Prince and Count, Treasurer of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, First Prophet of Amun, Overseer of the Priest of Upper and Lower Egypt, and Overseer of All the Works of the King."
During the 18th Dynasty, Nakhtpaaten served as the vizier during the reign of Akhenten Ã¢â‚¬â€œ the pharaoh known for shifting from the traditions of Egyptian polytheism to encouraging worship that concentrated on the Aten Ã¢â‚¬â€œ often referred to as a monotheistic approach. Before Nakhtpaaten became vizier, he took over the position previously held by Ramose, who was vizier in Thebes up until around the time of the establishment of the new capitol in Akhenaten. The tomb of Ramose was never finished in Thebes and after the capitol was moved to the new city within four to five years, Nakhtpaaten had become the new vizier.
Researchers learned that the vizier was given the following titles (as seen from his home and tomb): "Hereditary prince, count, sealbearer, overseer of the city and vizier, overseer of the work projects in Akhet-Aten." His home was located in the southern part of the city called Akhet-Aten. There, a large mansion was revealed, which included reception halls, bedrooms, bathroom, and offices. In the Amama rock tombs, Nakhtpaaten was laid to rest in Tomb no. 12.
When Ramesses XI ruled ancient Egypt, Herihor held the position of army officer and High Priest of Amun at Thebes from 1080 BC to 1074 BC. Herihor was Vizier of the South during the 20th century and is known as one of the last to serve the ancient civilization. When Ramesses XI and his successors of the 21st Dynasty split with the High Priests of Amun at Thebes, a time period known as the 'Renaissance' began. This event marked the unofficial political division of Egypt that took place between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.