Between 1985 and 1956 BC, the ancient Egyptians begin to benefit from trading with Asia and the Aegean , thanks to Amenemhat I , the first ruler of the 12th Dynasty from 1991 BC to 1962 BC. Interestingly, Amenemhat I did not belong to a royal bloodline. In later years, his son (Senusret I) would continue on where Amenemhat I left off. He is also known for building a temple in his honor at Thebes.
1937-1756 BC: 12th Dynasty. The capital of Egypt is moved back to Memphis. The 12th Dynasty also brings a reorganization of the land, as Sesostris II breaks the country into four different regions: northern and southern halves of the Nile Valley and eastern and western Delta.
1877 – 1870 BC: Senusret II is responsible for developing the Faiyum irrigation scheme , a closed water management system that involved a handful of canals.
1783-1539 BC: The 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, & 17th Dynasties take place. At this time, archeologists have found fewer monuments that have survived the test of time. The kings associated with these Dynasties did not rule over the land for a great amount of time , their reigns were short. It was also not uncommon to see kings rule over Egypt that were simply commoners when they were born. During this time, the eastern Delta region decided to break away.
1700 BC: The earliest evidence of diagnostic medicine emerges.
1650 BC: The capital is shifted to Thebes. This time period sees a great deal of building.
1650 – 1580 BC: The initial appearance of spells associated with what is known as the Book of the Dead take place during this time.
1560 BC: A war breaks out between Thebes and Asiatic ruler. Around this time, Ahmose is able to finally defeat Hyksos. As a result, they are expelled from Egypt.
1539-1295 BC: The 18th Dynasty takes place. During this time, a great deal of tough rulers made their mark. Thutmose I took over parts of the Near East and Africa. Hatshepsut and Thutmose were successful in making Egypt known as a super power. Amenhotep II played an instrumental role in jumpstarting the arts in Egypt. Akhenaton and Nefertiti encourage the people to embrace a new religion that included one god.
1532 – 1528 BC: Asiatic kings are able to conquer the capital of Hyksos.
1504 – 1492 BC: Thutmose I decides to start military campaigns. He is known as the third pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty and was given the throne after the previous ruler (Amenhotep I) died. During his rule, he touched deep into the Levant and Nubia as part of his campaign. As a result, the borders of Egypt expanded beyond the land inhabitants once knew. He was also responsible for the building of many temples in Egypt. He also built a tomb for himself located in the Valley of the Kings, which makes him the first king to make such a request.