The 4th Dynasty emerges between 2575 and 2467 BC. Peace finally settled in Egypt during this time period. We start to see kings becoming concerned with uplifting the arts of ancient Egypt. King Khufu’s Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed at this time. Royal tombs showcased some of the first religious words written on the walls. The sun god Re became a rather popular figure in regards to the worshipping practices of the land.
2550 – 2490 BC: Illustrious pyramids are built with Khufu (Cheops), Khephren (Chephren), and Menkare behind their existence.
2494 – 2487 BC: Abusir becomes the location, where King Userkaf chooses to construct a temple in honor of the sun god Ra.
2465-2323: The 5th Dynasty. During this time period, the government saw (for the first time) individuals from outside of royal bloodlines taking high positions. A shift is seen in the way that pyramids are constructed, as they start to look smaller and less solid in size. However, the carvings found in the temples are attractive and make up for the shortcomings of construction. Papyrus scrolls that dated back to this time have been discovered since, which start to show changes in record keeping , like keeping track of goods.
2375 – 2345 BC: The Pyramid Texts are created, which offer a description of Osiris.
2420 – 2258 BC: The government starts to suffer weak leadership, which is often attributed to the rule of Pepi I and Pepi II.
2323-2152 BC: The 6th Dynasty. The majority of records discovered from this time period reveal trading expeditions.
2160 BC: The capitol is no longer Memphis and is moved to Herakleopolis, which is located in the northern part of Middle Egypt. At this time, Theban rulers gain control of Upper Egypt.
2150 , 2135 BC: This is the time, where ancient Egyptians lived during the 7th and 8th Dynasties. The Old Kingdom suffers a collapse in their political structure. Famine spreads throughout the land and civil disobedience is on the rise. A great deal of death and destruction takes place.
2135 , 1986 BC: The 9th and 10th Dynasties are observed at this time, which sees a split in Egypt. Herakleopolis marks the location where the north is ruled from, while the south is ruled from Thebes. Ancient Egypt enjoys a stretch of prosperity, as foreign trade brings great wealth. A number of large building endeavors take place as well. The ancient Egyptians also become skilled in the art of making jewelry. The government grows stronger with the help of individuals, such as King Amenemhet I.
2074-1937 BC: 11th Dynasty is observed at this time. Egypt becomes unified under the rule of Metuhotep, who is responsible for the construction of the mortuary complex found at Dyr al-Bahri.
2134 – 2000 BC: Mentuhotep II is successful in reunited Egypt. The capital is relocated to Thebes during this time period.