With the allure of majestic pyramids and the glittering display of pharaoh tombs, the ancient Egyptians have always gained the attention of archeologists. From Cairo to Giza and Memphis to the Nile Valley , a great deal of interesting achievements and events have occurred in Egypt.
5000 BC: The first evidence that people were making a home about the Nile Delta is noted at this time.
4400 – 4000 BC: The Babarian culture emerges, where inhabitants during this time period were known to invest their time into agriculture. Domesticated sheep and goats were part of their daily living. They also gained a reputation for producing pottery.
4000 – 3500 BC: The first signs of a civilization that highlighted the use of a hierarchy are seen in the Amratian Society of Upper Egypt. Trade between the Upper and Lower parts of Egypt also takes place around this time.
3200 BC: Ancient Egyptians start to use hieroglyphics as a form of communication and leaving behind a recorded history. An increasing amount of Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs as a way to record religious literature, which was placed on wood and papyrus , when it was discovered during the 1st Dynasty.
3110 – 2884 BC: Menes was successful in joining the Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. He is also credited with establishing Memphis as the capital of the unified kingdom. Overall, Menes is looked upon as the founding father of the majority of history associated with ancient Egypt. According to Manetho, the ancient Egyptian historian and priest that lived during the Ptolemaic era (3rd century BC), Menes ruled over Egypt for 62 years and was supposedly killed by a crocodile or hippopotamus.
3000 BC: Farmland expanded due to irrigation. People now worship the sun.
3000 – 2890 BC: Abydos becomes the site where 1st Dynasty kings are buried in the first tombs created for royalty. The 1st Dynasty is observed from 2920 to 2770.
2890 – 2686 BC: The dead are placed in coffins made out of wood. Their bodies are wrapped in resin.
2770 , 2650 BC: The 2nd Dynasty. During this time, rivals fought for Egyptian control, but in the end, Hetepsekhemsy won. Kings were constantly at odds with one another, where they often argued over which god was in power between Horus and Seth. Finally, the debate was put to a rest when Khasekhemwy became ruler of Egypt, as he took both titles. By the time the end of the dynasty rolled around, chaos reared its ugly head. A civil war was the result.
2650-2575 BC: The 3rd Dynasty.
2686 – 2648 BC: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara is constructed with orders given by King Djoser.
In the next installment of ancient Egyptian history, you will encounter facts regarding the 4th Dynasty, record-keeping practices, and information regarding the Royal Tombs.