The Emperor no longer holds power over most of Asia Minor. The Seljuk Turks belonged to a Sunni Muslim dynasty that was in charge of Central Asian regions, as well as the Middle East. Their reign over these lands would last between the 11th and 14th centuries. They are also known for establishing the empire named the Great Seljug Empire.
During this same year of 1071, the remaining Byzantine outposts in Italy are taken over by the Normans. The Normans were inhabitants of medieval northern France, which held aristocratic ties to Scandinavia. Throughout history, the Normans would hold a major political, military and cultural influence over the Mediterranean and northern parts of medieval Europe and the Near East.
In 1081, the Komnenos dynasty is a reality , thanks to Alexios I. This is when Byzantium takes an interest in the Crusades. This move brings a better economy, which creates a greater wealth amongst the people. New levels of progress are seen in the arts and literature. This also marks the time when the Turks establish themselves in Anatolia in southwest Asia.
In 1091, the Imperial armies best the Pechenegs in the Battle of Levounion. This semi-nomadic group of Turkic people of the central parts of Asia spoke the Turkic language.
In 1097, the Byzantine armies and the First Crusaders are successful in recapturing Nicaea.
Between 1097 and 1176, the Byzantine armies take back the coasts of Asia Minor that the Turks were ruling at the time and continue on towards the central part of Anatolia.
In 1122, the Byzantines are victorious over the Pechenegs in the Battle of Beroia.
In 1167, the armies of Byzantium are triumphant in an important battle over the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium. In later years, Hungary would actually become a client state of Byzantium.
In the Battle of Myriokephalon, which took place in 1176, the Emperor named Manual I Komnenos tries to capture Konva, which serves as the capital of the Seljuk Turks. After his siege equipment is destroyed, he is forced to retreat. This would mark the last time an attempt to recapture the Anatolian plateau would take place. Manual I is known as the emperor who ruled during an important turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. He was anxious to bring back power to the empire and sought after aggressive foreign policies.
In 1180, Manual I Komnenos dies, which sends the Empire back into a downward spiral.
Five years later in 1185, a victorious rebellion takes place in Bulgaria and additional lands are too lost in the Balkans.
In 1204, the Crusaders, who wish to construct a Latin empire, conquer Constantinople.
In 1261, a reconquering of Constantinople takes place, which is led by the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Emperor of Nicaea (Michael VIII Palaiologos. It is his intention to reestablish Greek rule in the empire that is quickly faltering.
In 1453, the Ottoman Turks take over Constantinople. The death of Constantine XI Palaiologos will mark the last emperor of the Byzantine Empire, as the Byzantine Emperor as we know it , officially enters oblivion.