From demigods to mythological heroes, the Sumerians worshipped a wide range of deities that incorporated their views on many different subjects, including the arts and agriculture. In this article, you will learn more about gods and goddesses related to this ancient civilization.
Abzu , Known as the Primordial Lord of the Inner Waters, Abzu is mentioned in creation myths , alongside Tiamat. They are responsible for bringing the first forms to life , Lahamu and Lahmu. Abzu and Tiamet (known as a chaos monster and primordial goddess of the ocean) mated with one another and produced younger gods. However, Abzu eventually grew upset with the gods and attempted to stop them. Ea killed Abzu as a result of his defiance towards the gods. Abzu is also referred to as the father of the gods. Another connection that Abzu had in Summerian and Akkadian myths was to water, where he was believed to having a hand in the creation and maintenance of lakes, springs, rivers, wells, and other sources of fresh water.
Aruru , As an Earth goddess, she is referred to as being responsible for creating the first men out of clay. This was one of the many names of Nin-hursag, who was also known as Ninmah (“Great Queen”), Nintu (“Lady of Birth”), Mamma or Mami (mother), and Belet-Ili (lady of the gods in the Akkadian culture).
Ninurta , Ninurta was the child of Ninhursag and Enlil , along with his brother Nergal. He was known as a warrior deity, who served as the god of irrigation, copper and coppersmiths, and fertility. He was also a patron of hunters. In depictions of the god, he is often seen with a bow and arrow, sickle sword, or a mace that is actually named Sharur , and is known for having the ability to speak. In some Sumerian legends, Ninurta takes the form of a lion with wings. As far as cults go, Ninurta’s worshippers can be traced back to the oldest period of Sumerian history. There are many epithets in his honor and his name appears in numerous incantations and hymns.
Ninisinna , As the goddess of healing and medicine, she was also previously known as Ninsun. She is also the sister of Inanna.
Anat , Referred to as the “Lady of Heaven” or “Mistress of the Gods,” Anat served as an Earth goddess.
Ninkasi ,Ninkasi, who was known as the goddess of brewing and alcohol, was one of the eight children created in order to heal the wounds that her father Enki had received. She is mentioned as the goddess who can “satisfy the desire” and “sate the heart.” It was her responsibility to prepare the daily beverage. Interestingly, there have been microbreweries that have incorporated her name into their companies and beers , in places such as Eugene, Oregon and Lyon, France.
Sumuqan , Sumuqan is viewed as an important god of the Sumerian plain, since he ruled over the plants and animals of this particular region.