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ROGO, D SCOTT
Ketamine and the near-death experience.
Anabiosis; 1984 Spr Vol 4(1) 87-96
Contends that the phenomenology that typically accompanies the near-death experience (NDE) is sometimes a by-product of ketamine, an anesthetic used in both medical and recreational settings. It is suggested that these close parallels can be explained by a variety of conceptual models including the following: The NDE is a similar form of chemically induced hallucination. Ketamine induces objective out-of-body experiences. Ketamine-linked NDEs are artifacts produced by expectancy and the hospital setting. The NDE is an archetypal experience catalyzed under a variety of different situations. It is contended that each of these theories has its advantages and disadvantages; how one wishes to interpret the ketamine-NDE relationship is a matter of choice or individual bias rather than logic and analysis. The fact that ketamine-induced hallucinations resemble NDEs in so many details casts doubt on any simplistic metaphysical model of NDE.
MORSE, MELVIN L; VENECIA, DAVID; MILSTEIN, JERROLD
Near-death experiences: A neurophysiologic explanatory model.
Journal of Near Death Studies; 1989 Fal Vol 8(1) 45-53
Prior hypotheses on the etiology of near-death experiences (NDEs) have been limited to psychiatric explanations or brief discussions of endorphins (D. Carr, 1982) as causative agents. A neurophysiological explanation for NDEs is presented, based on their similarities with lysergic acid-, ketamine-, and hypercapnia-induced hallucinations. Core NDE may be genetically imprinted and triggered by serotonergic mechanisms.
JANSEN, KARL L
The near-death experience.
British Journal of Psychiatry; 1989 Jun Vol 154 883-884
Refers to the review of the near-death experience (NDE) by G. A. Roberts and J. Owen (see PA, Vol 76:24511), which notes that the dissociative anesthetic ketamine can reproduce many of the NDE features. The author suggests applying the recent explosion of knowledge in neuroscience to the understanding of NDEs.
ROGO, D SCOTT
NDEs and archetypes: Reply.
Anabiosis; 1984 Fal Vol 4(2) 180
Replies to the comments of M. Grosso (see PA, Vol 72:16165) that the present author (see PA, Vol 72:10), in his paper on ketamine near-death experiences (NDEs), did not pay sufficient attention to Grosso’s theory of archetypes in NDEs. The present author clarifies his position on the archetype theory as a ‘nontheory’ and contends that the pros and cons outlined for each of 3 ketamine NDE theories were presented from an objective, not a personal, viewpoint. Although the present author is favorably disposed to the idea of archetypes, no hard evidence that they exist has been evidenced in objective research.