Quantum computers, Introduction

Today’s computers are already very fast compared to humans when the comparative studies are done on a specific subject (such as a chess game for example). But Humans have still a better intelligence and can handle many more information than any computers in the world even when these machines work together. Soon, when quantum computers will work well, it won’t be anymore like this, computers will have the capacity to think a lot faster than humans and handle a lot more information. Indeed, the quantum computers will permit computers to perform tasks almost instantly. Will we enter in the technological singularity when humans will be surpassed by computers and technology in general?

In fact, quantum computers are still at the state of prototype for 10 years now. In 1980, the first evidences have been done about the better capacity that quantum computers have over the classic ones. David Deutsch, a British physicist from Oxford’s university was the first to prove it a this time. Many scientists didn’t believe in this new kind of computers arguing that it won’t be stable enough. But now, the quantum computers are part of many investigations and many progresses are done so far. Furthermore, because these computers will revolution the information process speed, it will have a big impact on our society and can be the precursor of new kind of intelligences if good algorithms are found in time.

Another effect that the power of this new computers will have on the future is that today’s computer security will be threaten. Indeed, security systems will need to be changed because quantum computers will have the possibility to break security systems in seconds. For example, the system used today for secured on-line transaction (used for credit card for example) based on the fact that no algorithm have been found to be enough fast to factorize big numbers will be broken in a second with quantum computers. Thus all the Internet security is in danger. Hopefully, new cryptographic methods have been thought that are possible because of the astonishing proprieties of the particles in the quantum physics theories.

Quantum computers have the capability to perform a lot faster than classic computers because they are based on the uncertainty principle of quantum physics. A qbit (the equivalent of a bit in a quantum computer) can have the state of 0 and 1 plus the state of uncertainty which include all possible state (it is like the particle have all the state at the same time). With this special propriety, a qbit can represent more than a classic bit. Another interesting propriety of quantum physics is that two particles (2 qbits) can be set as interdependent.Thus modifying one will modify the other. Quantum computers are the future of computers and we need to be prepared