Magnetics – Part 1
The orthodox version as taught in our schools
William Gilbert, court physician of Queen Elizabeth I, was the first
to study magnets from a scientific viewpoint. Gilbert discovered
that the Earth was a giant magnet by mounting a magnetized needle so
that it could pivot freely in a vertical direction (known since as a
“dip needle”) so that the north pole dipped toward the ground. The
earth was modelled by a spherical lodestone which showed that the
needle would behave exactly the same way as the earth when held over
the “northern hemisphere”, which is where Gilbert was at the time of
his experiment. These researches can be checked out in his work
entitled DE MAGNETE.
Scientists have long speculated that the Earth might have a gigantic
iron magnet at its core. Modern studies have shown the central core
to be molten which discounts the magnet theory due to the phenomenon
known as the “Curie temperature”. When iron is heated, it loses its
strong magnetic properties. This occurs at 760 degrees Centigrade
(for iron). The temperature at the Earth’s core is CALCULATED to be
at least 1000 degrees Centigrade indicating there is NO magnetic
field at the core. However, as the metal cools, it would become
The “Curie temperature” was discovered by Pierre Curie in 1895.
Cobalt and nickel, also ferromagnetic (ferro = iron), lose their
magnetic properties when exposed to high temperatures. Nickel at
356 degrees Centigrade and Cobalt at 1075 degrees Centigrade. At
low temperatures, certain other metals are ferromagnetic.
Dysprosium becomes ferromagnetic at -188 degrees Centigrade.
Magnetism is a property of the atom itself. In most materials the
atomic magnets are randomly oriented, so that most of the effect is
cancelled out. Weak properties are however detectable and are
referred to as “paramagnetism.” The magnetic strength is referred
to as “permeability.” Vacuum has a permeability of 1.00.
Paramagnetic substances range between 1.00 and 1.01.
Nickel has a permeability of 40, cobalt of 55, while iron is in the
thousands. Magnetic “domains” are tiny areas about .001 to .1
centimeters in diameter, and are where atomic magnets line up to
reinforce one another. This reinforcement produces strong fields
within the domains.
In unmagnetized iron, the domains are randomly oriented, thus
cancelling out one another’s effect. When the domains are brought
into line by action of another magnet, the iron is considered
The reorientation of domains during the magnetism process produces
clicking and hissing noises which can be detected by proper
amplification. This phenomenon is termed the “Barkhausen effect”
after the German physicist, Heinrich Barkhausen.
In “anti-ferromagnetic substances”, such as manganese, the domains
also line up, but in alternate directions. This cancels out most of
the magnetism. Again, above a particular temperature, substances
lose this anti-ferromagnetic effect and becomes paramagnetic
(attractive to magnetism).
Michael Faraday wound a coil of wire around a segment of an iron
ring and a second coil of wire around another segment of the ring.
When he connected the first coil to a battery, a momentary induced
current could be detected in the second coil. The galvanometer
(current meter) showed a positive increase as the magnetism rushed
in when the power was switched on. When the battery was switched
off, the collapsing lines of magnetic force again cut across the
wire of the second coil, causing a momentary surge of electricity in
the opposite direction of the first flow. This was the first
Physicist Walter Maurice Elsasser has proposed that the rotation of
the earth sets up slow eddies in the molten iron core, circling west
to east. These eddies have the effect of PRODUCING AN ELECTRIC
CURRENT, also circling west to east. Just as Faraday’s coil of wire
produced magnetic lines of force within the coil, so does the
circling electric current in the earth’s core. An internal magnet
is created with a north/south axis. This accounts for the earth’s
magnetic field, oriented roughly along the axis of rotation, so that
the magnetic poles are near the north and south geographic poles.
The north magnetic pole is off the coast of northern Canada about
one thousand miles from the actual geographics North pole. The
South magnetic pole is near the Antartica shoreline west of Ross
Sea, again about one thousand miles from the geographic South Pole.
Interestingly enough, the magnetic poles are NOT DIRECTLY OPPOSITE
EACH OTHER on the globe. A LINE PASSING THROUGH THEM DOES NOT PASS
DIRECTLY THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE EARTH.
The deviation of the compass needle from the “true North”, (the
direction of the geographic North Pole) varies irregularly as one
travels east or west. The compass needle shifted on Columbus’ first
voyage which he hid from his crew lest it excite terror in them that
would force him to turn back.
Modern physics texts teach that North Pole energy is an inflow while
South Pole energy is an outflow. The North pole of a magnet is the
“north-seeking pole” of a bar magnet which points toward the
geographics North pole.
In 1580, the tilt or declination of the magnetic field was measured
at 11 degrees East, 0 degrees in 1657, 25 degrees West in 1820 and
is currently DECREASING with a value of about 7 degrees West in
The North end of a magnet attracts the South end of another bar
magnet, so we say that in magnetics, LIKE POLES REPEL AND UNLIKE
POLES ATTRACT. This is caused by the interaction between the moving
and spinning orbital electrons which are bound to the nuclei. Also,
the radical differences between iron and copper are due to the
possibility of cooperation between oriented domains in the iron.
Therefore, ALL magnetic charges can ultimately be described in terms
of moving charges.
Modern efficient magnet coils use wires of a superconducting alloy
(cooled below the Curie transition temperature.) A typical
commercially available magnet uses an alloy of 75% Nb – (Niobium)
and 25% Zr – (Zirconium) cooled to 4.2 degrees Kelvin. Such a wire
of only .01 inch diameter carries 25 Amperes with absolutely no
The “Right-Hand Rule” is demonstrated in the diagram on the left.
If you picture your right hand grasping the shaft with the thumb
pointing up, the positive current will be flowing in the direction
of your thumb. (SEE BIOMAG3.GIF)
The fingers of your right hand would then indicate the direction of
the magnetic lines of force which will be CCW if looking DOWN ONTO
the elliptical flux lines.
Modern magnetics teaches that the lines of magnetic flux enter from
the North Pole and exit from the South Pole. These lines bow out
into space from the RADIATING SOUTH POLE to rejoin the CONDENSING
There are theories which posit the existence of a MAGNETIC MONOPOLE.
This would be a magnetic mass with ONLY A SOUTH POLE OR ONLY A NORTH
POLE. This postulated phenomenon has yet to be witnessed under
laboratory conditions although there have been reports in isolated
instances. (over the past few years, we received a copy of a patent
showing a configuration of magnets which form a SINGLE monopole,
either north or south depending on the orientation of the 6 magnets
which comprise the structure, they are arranged in an X,Y,Z axis
with a common pole pointing toward the center)
In the next issue of the PLENUM, we will go into the research
findings of Albert Roy Davis and Walter Rawls. Here we will being
to see a potential conflict when attempting to define spin as CW or
CCW. It is entirely dependent on the PERSPECTIVE OF THE VIEWER.