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The orthodox version of Magnetics

Magnetics – Part 1

The orthodox version as taught in our schools

William Gilbert, court physician of Queen Elizabeth I, was the first

to study magnets from a scientific viewpoint. Gilbert discovered

that the Earth was a giant magnet by mounting a magnetized needle so

that it could pivot freely in a vertical direction (known since as a

“dip needle”) so that the north pole dipped toward the ground. The

earth was modelled by a spherical lodestone which showed that the

needle would behave exactly the same way as the earth when held over

the “northern hemisphere”, which is where Gilbert was at the time of

his experiment. These researches can be checked out in his work

entitled DE MAGNETE.

Scientists have long speculated that the Earth might have a gigantic

iron magnet at its core. Modern studies have shown the central core

to be molten which discounts the magnet theory due to the phenomenon

known as the “Curie temperature”. When iron is heated, it loses its

strong magnetic properties. This occurs at 760 degrees Centigrade

(for iron). The temperature at the Earth’s core is CALCULATED to be

at least 1000 degrees Centigrade indicating there is NO magnetic

field at the core. However, as the metal cools, it would become

magnetic.

The “Curie temperature” was discovered by Pierre Curie in 1895.

Cobalt and nickel, also ferromagnetic (ferro = iron), lose their

magnetic properties when exposed to high temperatures. Nickel at

356 degrees Centigrade and Cobalt at 1075 degrees Centigrade. At

low temperatures, certain other metals are ferromagnetic.

Dysprosium becomes ferromagnetic at -188 degrees Centigrade.

Magnetism is a property of the atom itself. In most materials the

atomic magnets are randomly oriented, so that most of the effect is

cancelled out. Weak properties are however detectable and are

referred to as “paramagnetism.” The magnetic strength is referred

to as “permeability.” Vacuum has a permeability of 1.00.

Paramagnetic substances range between 1.00 and 1.01.

Nickel has a permeability of 40, cobalt of 55, while iron is in the

thousands. Magnetic “domains” are tiny areas about .001 to .1

centimeters in diameter, and are where atomic magnets line up to

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reinforce one another. This reinforcement produces strong fields

within the domains.

In unmagnetized iron, the domains are randomly oriented, thus

cancelling out one another’s effect. When the domains are brought

into line by action of another magnet, the iron is considered

magnetized.

The reorientation of domains during the magnetism process produces

clicking and hissing noises which can be detected by proper

amplification. This phenomenon is termed the “Barkhausen effect”

after the German physicist, Heinrich Barkhausen.

In “anti-ferromagnetic substances”, such as manganese, the domains

also line up, but in alternate directions. This cancels out most of

the magnetism. Again, above a particular temperature, substances

lose this anti-ferromagnetic effect and becomes paramagnetic

(attractive to magnetism).

Michael Faraday wound a coil of wire around a segment of an iron

ring and a second coil of wire around another segment of the ring.

When he connected the first coil to a battery, a momentary induced

current could be detected in the second coil. The galvanometer

(current meter) showed a positive increase as the magnetism rushed

in when the power was switched on. When the battery was switched

off, the collapsing lines of magnetic force again cut across the

wire of the second coil, causing a momentary surge of electricity in

the opposite direction of the first flow. This was the first

“transformer.”

Physicist Walter Maurice Elsasser has proposed that the rotation of

the earth sets up slow eddies in the molten iron core, circling west

to east. These eddies have the effect of PRODUCING AN ELECTRIC

CURRENT, also circling west to east. Just as Faraday’s coil of wire

produced magnetic lines of force within the coil, so does the

circling electric current in the earth’s core. An internal magnet

is created with a north/south axis. This accounts for the earth’s

magnetic field, oriented roughly along the axis of rotation, so that

the magnetic poles are near the north and south geographic poles.

The north magnetic pole is off the coast of northern Canada about

one thousand miles from the actual geographics North pole. The

South magnetic pole is near the Antartica shoreline west of Ross

Sea, again about one thousand miles from the geographic South Pole.

Interestingly enough, the magnetic poles are NOT DIRECTLY OPPOSITE

EACH OTHER on the globe. A LINE PASSING THROUGH THEM DOES NOT PASS

DIRECTLY THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE EARTH.

The deviation of the compass needle from the “true North”, (the

direction of the geographic North Pole) varies irregularly as one

travels east or west. The compass needle shifted on Columbus’ first

voyage which he hid from his crew lest it excite terror in them that

would force him to turn back.

Modern physics texts teach that North Pole energy is an inflow while

South Pole energy is an outflow. The North pole of a magnet is the

“north-seeking pole” of a bar magnet which points toward the

geographics North pole.

 

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In 1580, the tilt or declination of the magnetic field was measured

at 11 degrees East, 0 degrees in 1657, 25 degrees West in 1820 and

is currently DECREASING with a value of about 7 degrees West in

1972.

The North end of a magnet attracts the South end of another bar

magnet, so we say that in magnetics, LIKE POLES REPEL AND UNLIKE

POLES ATTRACT. This is caused by the interaction between the moving

and spinning orbital electrons which are bound to the nuclei. Also,

the radical differences between iron and copper are due to the

possibility of cooperation between oriented domains in the iron.

Therefore, ALL magnetic charges can ultimately be described in terms

of moving charges.

Modern efficient magnet coils use wires of a superconducting alloy

(cooled below the Curie transition temperature.) A typical

commercially available magnet uses an alloy of 75% Nb – (Niobium)

and 25% Zr – (Zirconium) cooled to 4.2 degrees Kelvin. Such a wire

of only .01 inch diameter carries 25 Amperes with absolutely no

Joule heating.

The “Right-Hand Rule” is demonstrated in the diagram on the left.

If you picture your right hand grasping the shaft with the thumb

pointing up, the positive current will be flowing in the direction

of your thumb. (SEE BIOMAG3.GIF)

The fingers of your right hand would then indicate the direction of

the magnetic lines of force which will be CCW if looking DOWN ONTO

the elliptical flux lines.

Modern magnetics teaches that the lines of magnetic flux enter from

the North Pole and exit from the South Pole. These lines bow out

into space from the RADIATING SOUTH POLE to rejoin the CONDENSING

NORTH POLE.

There are theories which posit the existence of a MAGNETIC MONOPOLE.

This would be a magnetic mass with ONLY A SOUTH POLE OR ONLY A NORTH

POLE. This postulated phenomenon has yet to be witnessed under

laboratory conditions although there have been reports in isolated

instances. (over the past few years, we received a copy of a patent

showing a configuration of magnets which form a SINGLE monopole,

either north or south depending on the orientation of the 6 magnets

which comprise the structure, they are arranged in an X,Y,Z axis

with a common pole pointing toward the center)

In the next issue of the PLENUM, we will go into the research

findings of Albert Roy Davis and Walter Rawls. Here we will being

to see a potential conflict when attempting to define spin as CW or

CCW. It is entirely dependent on the PERSPECTIVE OF THE VIEWER.