Unexplainable.Net

The United States Air Force and UFOLOGY

 The United States Air Force and UFOlogy

For years now, the debate between debunkers and skeptics as

opposed to believers has raged on over whether the United States

Government, or more specifically the United States Air Force

considers the subject of UFOlogy to be serious business. Also

what must be considered is what elements or departments of the

government would be concerned with this if UFO’s proved to be a

threat.

The United States Air-force has maintained for over

thirty years that the largest percentage of reports are

explainable, and most usally are. However, the Air Force also

maintains that the rest could be explained if only enough

information were present. Is this true, or is it a smoke screen

as many researchers maintain? And, what if anything does the Air

Force tell its own officer corps that may be presented with this

enigma in the course of their duty?

The following document is taken verbatim from the United

States Air Forces Academy textbook, ” Introductory Space Science,

Volume II, Department of Physics, USAF. ” This is the volume

that was being used by the Air Force Academy, at Colorado

Springs, Colorado. The Air Force Academy has since pulled this

volume from the curicullem in the very early 70’s, because of the

contraversy it generated, but after reading this, I think you

will find that the United States Air Force has considered the

subject of UFOlogy to be very “serious business.”

Transcribed by:

Don Ecker

Public Relations Director

ParaNet(sm) Information Service

ParaNet Alpha

1:102/422

INTRODUCTORY SPACE SCIENCE – VOLUME II

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS – USAF

Edited by:

Major Donald G. Carpenter

Co-Editor:

Lt. Colonel Edward R. Therkelson

CHAPTER XIII

UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS

What is an Unidentified Flying Object (UFO)? Well,

according to United States Air Force Regulation 80-17 (dated 19

September 1966), a UFO is “Any” aerial Phenomenon or object which

is unknown or appears to be out of the ordinary to the observer.”

This is a very broad definition which applies equally well to one

individual seeing his first noctilucent cloud at twilight as it

does to another individual seeing his first helicopter. However,

at present most people consider the term UFO to mean an

object which behaves in a strange or erratic manner while moving

through the Earth’s atmosphere. That strange phenomenon has

evoked strong emotions and great curiosity among a large segment

of our world’s population. The average person is interested

because he loves a mystery, the professional military man is

involved because of the possible threat to national security, and

some scientist are interested because of the basic curiosity that

led them into becoming researchers.

The literature on UFO’s is so vast, and the stories so many

and varied, that we can only present a sketchy outline of the

subject in this chapter. That outline includes description

classifications, operational domains (temporal and spatial), some

theories as to the nature of the UFO phenomenon, human reactions,

attempts to attack the problem scientifically, and some tentative

conclusions. If you wish to read further in this area, the

references provide an excellent starting point.

33.1 DESCRIPTIONS

One of the greatest problems you encounter when attempting

to catalog UFO sightings, is selection of a system for

cataloging. No effective system has yet been devised, although a

number of different systems have been proposed. The net result

is that almost all UFO data are either treated in the form of

individual cases, or in the forms of inadequate callification

systems. However, these systems do tend to have some common

factors, and a collection of these factors is as follows:

a. Size

b. Shape (disc, ellipse, football, etc.)

c. Luminosity

d. Color

e. Number of UFO’s

Behavior:

a. Location (altitude, direction, etc.)

b. Patterns of paths (straight line, climbing, zig-zagging, etc.)

c. Flight Characteristics (wobbling, fluttering, etc.)

d. Periodicity of sightings

e. Time duration

f. Curiosity or inquisitiveness

g. Avoidance

h. Hostility

Associated Effects:

a. Electro-Magnetic (compass, radio, ignition systems, etc.)

b. Radiation (burns, induced radioactivity, etc.)

c. Ground disturbance (dust stirred up, leaves moved, standing wave peaks of surface of water, etc.)

d. Sound (none, hissing, humming, roaring, thunderclaps, etc.)

e. Vibration (weak, strong, slow, fast)

f. Smell (ozone or other odor)

g. Flame (how much, where, when, color)

h. Smoke or cloud (amount, color, persistence)

i. Debris (type, amount, color, persistence)

j. Inhibition of voluntary movement by observers

k. Sighting of “creatures” or “beings”

After Effects:

a. Burned areas or animals

b. depressed or flattened areas

c. Dead or “missing animals”

d. Mentally disturbed people

e. Missing items

We make no attempt here to present available data in terms of the

foregoing descriptors.

33.2 OPERATIONAL DOMAINS – TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL

What we will do here is to present evidence that UFO’s are a

global phenomenon which may have persisted for many thousands of

years. During this discussion, please remember that the more

ancient the reports the less sophisticated the observer. Not

only were the ancient observers lacking the terminilogy necessary

to describe complex devices (such as present day helicopters) but

they were also lacking the concepts necessary to understand the

true nature of such things as television, spaceships, rockets,

nuclear weapons and radiation effects. To some, the most

advanced technological concept was a war chariot with knife

blades attached to the wheels. By the same token, the very lack

of accurate terminolgy and descriptions leaves the more ancient

reports open to considerable misinterpretation, and it may well

be that present evaluations of individual reports are completely

wrong. Nevertheless, let us start with an intriguing story in

one of the oldest chronicles of India. . . . the Book of Dzyan.

The book is a group of “story-teller” legends which were

finally gathered in manuscript form when man learned to write.

One of the stories is of a small group of beings who supposedly

came to Earth many thousands of years ago in a metal craft which

orbited the Earth several times before landing. As told in the

Book “These beings lived to themselves and were revered by the

humans among whom they had settled. But eventually differences

arose among them and they divided their numbers, several of the

men and women and some children settled in another city, where

they were promptly installed as rulers by the awe-stricken

populace.

“Separation did not bring peace to these people and finally

their anger reached a point where the ruler of the original city

took with him a small number of his warriors and they rose into

the air in a huge shining metal vessel. While they were many

leagues from the city of their enemies, they launched a great

shining lance that rode on a beam of light. It burst apart in

the city of their enemies with a great ball of flame that shot up

to the heavens, almost to the stars. All those who were in the

city were horribly burned and even those who were not in the city

– but nearby – were burned also. Those who looked upon the lance

and the ball of fire were blinded forever afterward. Those who

entered the city on foot became ill and died. Even the dust of

the city was poisoned, as were the rivers that flowed through it.

Men dared not go near it, and it gradually crumbled into dust and

was forgotten by men.”

“When the leader saw what he had done to his own people he

retired to his palace and refused to see anyone. Then he

gathered about him those warriors who remained, and their wives

and children, and they entered their vessels and rose one by one

into the sky and sailed away. Nor did they return.”

Could this foregoing legend really be an account of an

extraterestrial colonization, complete with guided missle,

nuclear warhead and radiation effects? It is difficult to assess

the validity of that explanation…just as it is difficult to

explain why Greek, Roman and Nordic Mythology all discuss wars

and contacts among their “Gods.” (Even the Bible records

conflict between the legions of God and Satan.) Could it be that

each group recorded their parochial view of what was actually a

global conflict among alien colonists or visitors? Or is it that

man has led such a violent existence that he tends to expect

conflict and violence among even his gods?

Evidence of perhaps an even earlier possible contact was

uncovered by Tschi Pen Lao of the University of Peking. He

discovered astonishing carvings in granite on a mountain in Hunan

Province and on an island in Lake Tungting. These carvings have

been evaluated as 47,000 years old, and they show people with

large trunks (breathing apparatus?…or “elephant” heads shown on

human bodies? Remember, the Egyptians often represented their

gods as animal heads on human bodies.)

Only 8,000 years ago, rocks were sculpted in the Tassili

plateau of Sahara, depicting what appeared to be human beings but

with strange round heads (helmets? or “sun” heads on human

bodies?) And even more recently, in the Bible, Genesis (6:4)

tells of angels from the sky mating with women of Earth, who bore

them children. Genesis 19:3 tells of Lot meeting two angels in

desert and his later feeding them at his house. The Bible also

tells a rather unusual story of Ezekiel who witnessed what has

been interpreted by some to have been a spacecraft or aircraft

landing near the Chebar River in Chaldea (593 B.C.).

Even the Irish have recorded strange visitations. In the

Speculum Regali in Konungs Skuggsa (and other accounts of the era

about 956 A.D.) are numerous stories of “demonships” in the

skies. In one case a rope from one such ship became entangled

with part of a church. A man from the ship climbed down the rope

to free it, but was seized by the townspeople. The Bishop made

the people release the man, who climbed back to the ship, where

the crew cut the rope and the ship rose and sailed out of sight.

In all of his actions, the climbing man appeared as if he were

swimming in water. Stories such as this makes one wonder if the

legends of the “little people” of Ireland were based upon

imagination alone.

About the same time, in Lyons (France) three men and a women

supposedly descended from an airship or spaceship and were

captured by a mob. These foreigners admitted to being wizards,

and were killed. (No mention is made of the methods employed to

extract the admissions.) Many documented UFO sightings occurred

throughout the Middle Ages, including an especially startling one

of a UFO over London on 16 December 1742. However, we do not

have room to include any more of the Middle Ages sightings.

Instead, two “more-recent” sightings are contained in this

section to bring us up to modern times.

In a sworn statement dated 21 April 1897, a prosperous

and prominent farmer named Alexander Hamilton (Le Roy, Kansas,

U.S.A.) told of an attack upon his cattle at about 10:30 PM the

previous Monday. He, his son, and his tenant grabbed axes and

ran some 700 feet from the house to the cow lot where a great

cigar-shaped ship about 300 feet long floated some 30 feet above

his cattle. It had a carriage underneath which was brightly

lighted within (dirigible and gondola?) and which had numerous

windows. Inside were six strange looking beings jabbering in a

foreign language. These beings suddenly became aware of Hamilton

and the others. They immediately turned a searchlight on the

farmer, and also turned on some power which sped up a turbine

wheel (about 30 ft diameter) located under the craft. The ship

rose, taking with it a two-year old heifer which was roped about

the neck by a cable of one-half inch thick, red material. The

next day a neighbor, Link Thomas, found the animal’s hide, legs

and head in his field. He was mystified at how the remains got

to where they were because of the lack of tracks in the soft

soil. Alexander Hamilton’s sworn statement was accompanied by an

affidavit as to his veracity. The affidavit was signed by ten of

the local leading citizens.

On the evening of 4 November 1957 at Fort Itaipu, Brazil,

two sentries noted a “new star” in the sky. The “star” grew in

size and within seconds stopped over the fort. It drifted slowly

downward, was as large as a big aircraft, and was surrounded by a

strong orange glow. A distinct humming sound was heard, and then

the heat struck. A Sentry collapsed almost immediately, the

other managed to slide to shelter under the heavy cannons where

his loud cries awoke the garrison. While the troops were

scrambling towards their battle stations, complete electrical

failure occurred. There was panic until the lights came back on

but a number of men still managed to see an orange glow leaving

the area at high speed. Both sentries were found badly

burned…one unconscious and the other incoherent, suffering from

deep shock.

Thus, UFO sightings not only appear to extend back to 47,000

years through time but also are global in nature. One has the

feeling that this phenomenon deserves some sort of valid

scientific investigation, even if it is a low level effort.

33.3 SOME THEORIES AS TO THE NATURE OF THE UFO PHENOMENON

There are very few cohesive theories as to the nature of

UFO’s. Those theories that have been advanced can be collected

in five groups:

a. Mysticism

b. Hoaxes, and rantings due to unstable personalities

c. Secret Weapons

d. Natural Phenomena

e. Alien visitors

Mysticism

It is believed by some cults that the mission of UFO’s and

their crews is a spiritual one, and that all materialistic

efforts to determine the UFO’s nature are doomed to failure.

Hoaxes and Rantings due to Unstable Personalities

Some have suggested that all UFO reports were the results of

pranks and hoaxes, or were made by people with unstable

personalities. This attitude was particularly prevalent during

the time period when the Air Force investigation was being

operated under the code name of Project Grudge. A few airlines

even went as far as to ground every pilot who reported seeing a

“flying saucer.” The only way for the pilot to regain flight

status was to undergo a psychiatric examination. There was a

noticeable decline in pilot reports during this time interval,

and a few interpreted this decline to prove that UFO’s were

either hoaxes or the result of unstable personalities. It is of

interest that NICAP (The National Investigations Committee on

Aerial Phenomena) even today stillreceives reports from

commercial pilots who neglect to notify either the Air Force or

their own airline.

There are a number of cases which indicate that not all

reports fall in the hoax category. We will examine one such case

now. It is the Socorro, New Mexico sighting made by police

Sergeant Lonnie Zamora. Sergeant Zamora was patrolling the

streets of Socorro on 24 April 1964 when he saw a shiny object

drift down into an area of gullies on the edge of town. He also

heard a loud roaring noise which sounded as if an old dynamite

shed located out that way had exploded. He immediately radioed

police headquarters, and drove out toward the shed. Zamora was

forced to stop about 150 yards away from a deep gully in which

there appeared to be an overturned car. He radioed that he was

investigating a possible wreck, and then worked his car up onto

the mesa and over toward the edge of the gully. He parked short,

and when he walked the final few feet to the edge, he was amazed

to see that it was not a car but instead was a weird eggshaped

object about fifteen feet long, white in color and resting on

short, metal legs. Beside it, unaware of his presence were two

humanoids dressed in silvery coveralls. They seemed to be

working on a portion of the underside of the object. Zamora was

still standing there, surprised, when they suddenly noticed him

and dove out of sight around the object. Zamora also headed the

other way, back toward his car. He glanced back at the object

just as a bright blue flame shot down from the underside. Within

seconds the eggshaped thing rose out of the gully with “an

earsplitting roar.” The object was out of sight over the nearby

mountains almost immediately, and Sergeant Zamora was moving the

opposite direction almost as fast when he met Sergeant Sam Chavez

who was responding to Zamora’s earlier radio calls. Together

they investigated the gully and found the bushes charred and

still smoking where the blue flame had jetted down on them.

About the charred area were four deep marks where the metal legs

had been. Each mark was three and one half inches deep, and was

circular in shape. The sand in the gully was very hard packed

so no sign of the humanoids’ footprints could be found. An

official investigation was launched that same day, and all data

obtained supported the stories of Zamora and Chavez. It is

rather difficult to label this episode a hoax, and it is also

doubtful that both Zamora and Chavez shared portions of the same

hallucination.

Secret Weapons

A few individuals have proposed that UFO’s are actually

advanced weapon systems, and that their natures must not be

revealed. Very few people accept this as a credible suggestion.

Natural Phenomena

It has also been suggested that at least some, and possibly

all of the UFO cases were just mis-interpreted manifestations of

natural phenomena. Undoubtedly this suggestion has some merit.

People have reported, as UFO’s, objects which were conclusively

proven to be balloons (weather and skyhook), the planet Venus,

man-made artificial satellites, normal aircraft, unusual cloud

formations, and lights from ceilometers (equipment projecting

light beams on cloud bases to determine the height of the

aircraft visual ceiling).

 It is also suspected that people have

reported mirages, optical illusions, swamp gas and ball lightning

(a poorly-understood discharge of electrical energy in a

spheroidal or ellipsoidal shape…some charges have lasted for up

to fifteen minutes but the ball is usually no bigger than a large

orange.) But it is difficult to tell a swamp dweller that the

strange, fast-moving light he saw in the sky was swamp gas; and

it is just as difficult to tell a farmer that a bright UFO in the

sky is the same ball lightning that he has seen rolling along his

fence wires in dry weather. Thus accidental mis-identification

of what might well be natural phenomena breeds mistrust and

disbelief; it leads to the hasty conclusion that the truth is

deliberately not being told. One last suggestion of interest has

been made, that the UFO’s were plasmoids from

space…concentrated blobs of solar wind that succeeded in

reaching the surface of the Earth. Somehow this last suggestion

does not seem to be very plausible; perhaps because it ignores

such things as penetration of Earth’s magnetic field.

Alien Visitors

The most stimulating theory for us is that the UFO’s are

material objects which are either “Manned” or remote-controlled

by beings who are alien to this planet. There is some evidence

supporting this viewpoint. In addition to police Sergeant Lonnie

Zamora’s experience, let us consider the case of Barney and Betty

Hill. On a trip through New England they lost two hours on the

night of 19 September 1961 without even realizing it. However,

after that night both Barney and Betty began developing

psychological problems which eventually grew sufficiently severe

that they submitted themselves to psychiatric examination and

treatment. During the course of treatment hypnotherapy was used,

and it yielded remarkably detailed and similar stories from both

Barney and Betty. Essentially they had been hypotically

kidnapped, taken aboard a UFO, submitted to two-hour physicals,

and released with posthypnotic suggestions to forget the entire

incident. The evidence is rather strong that this is what the

Hills, even in their subconscious, believe happened to them. And

it is of particular importance that after the “posthypnotic

block” was removed, both of the Hills ceased having their

psychological problems.

The Hill’s description of the aliens was similar to

descriptions provided in other cases, but this particular type of

alien appears to be in the minority. The most commonly described

alien is about three and one half feet tall, has a round head

(helmet?), arms reaching to or below his knees, and is wearing a

silvery space suit or coveralls. Other aliens appear to be

essentially the same as Earthmen, while still others have

particularily wide (wrap around) eyes and mouths with very thin

lips. And there is a rare group reported as about four feet

tall, weight of around 35 pounds, and covered with thick hair or

fur (clothing?). Members of this last group are described as

being extremely strong. If such beings are visiting Earth, two

questions arise: 1) why haven’t they attempted to contact us

officially? The answer to the first question may exist partially

in Sergeant Lonnie Zamora’s experience, and may exist partially

in the Tunguska metor discussed in Chapter XXIX. In that chapter

it was suggested that the Tunguska metor was actually a comet

which exploded in the atmosphere, the ices melted and the dust

spread out. Hence, no debris. However, it has also been

suggested that the Tunguska meteor was actually an alien

spacecraft that entered the atmosphere too rapidly, suffered

mechanical failure, and lost its power supply and/or weapons in a

nuclear explosion. While that hypothesis may seem far fetched,

sample of tree rings from around the world reveal that,

immediately after the Tunguska meteor explosion, the level of

radioactivity in the world rose sharply for a short period of

time. It is difficult to find a natural explanation for that

increase in radioactivity, although the suggestion has been

advanced that enough of the meteor’s great Kinetic energy was

converted into heat (by atmospheric friction) that a fusion

reaction occurred. This still leaves us with no answer to the

second question: why no contact? That question is very easy to

answer in several ways: 1) we may be the object of intensive

sociological and psychological study. In such studies you

usually avoid disturbing the test subjects’ environment; 2) you

do not “contact” a colony of ants, and humans may seem that way

to any aliens (variation: a zoo is fun to visit, but you don’t

“contact” the lizards); 3) such contact may have already taken

place secretly; and 4) such contact may have already taken place

on a different plane of awareness and we are not yet sensitive to

communications on such a plane. These are just a few of the

reasons. You may add to the list as you desire.

33.4 HUMAN FEAR AND HOSTILITY

Besides the foregoing reasons, contacting humans is

downright dangerous. Think about that for a moment! On the

microscopic level our bodies reject and fight (through production

antibodies) any alien material; this process helps us fight off

disease but it also sometimes results in allergic reactions to

innocous materials. On the macroscopic (psychological and

sociological) level we are antagonistic to beings that are

“different”. For proof of that, just watch how an odd child is

treated by other children, or how a minority group is socially

deprived, or how the Arabs feel about the Israelis (Chinese vs

Japanese, Turks vs Greeks, etc.) In case you are hesitant to

extend that concept to the treatment of aliens let me point out

that in very ancient times, possible extraterrestrials may have

been treated as Gods but in the last two thousand years, the

evidence is that any possible aliens have been ripped apart by

mobs, shot and shot at, physically assaulted, and in general

treated with fear and aggression.

In Ireland about 1,000 A.D., supposed airships were treated

as “demonships.” In Lyons, France, “admitted” space travellers

were killed. More recently, on 24 July 1957 Russian anti-

aircraft batteries on the Kouril Islands opened fire on UFO’s.

Although all Soviet anti-aircraft batteries on the Islands were

in action, no hits were made. The UFO’s were luminous and moved

very fast. We too have fired on UFO’s. About ten o’clock one

morning, a radar site near a fighter base picked up a UFO doing

700 mph. The UFO then slowed to 100 mph, and two F-86’s were

scrambled to intercept. Eventually one F-86 closed on the UFO at

about 3,000 feet altitude. The UFO began to accelerate away but

the pilot still managed to get within 500 yards of the target for

a short period of time. It was definately saucer shaped. As the

pilot pushed the F-86 at top speed, the UFO began to pull away.

When the range reached 1,000 yards, the pilot armed his guns and

fired in an attempt to down the saucer. He failed, and the UFO

pulled away rapidly, vanishing in the distance. This same basic

situation may have happened on a more personal level. On Sunday

evening 21 August 1955, eight adults and three children were on

the Sutton Farm (one-half mile from Kelly, Kentucky) when,

according to them, one of the children saw a brightly glowing UFO

settle behind the barn, out of sight from where he stood. Other

witnesses on nearby farms also saw the object. However, the

Suttons dismissed it as a “shooting star”, and did not

investigate. Approximately thirty minutes later (at 8:00 pm),

the family dogs began barking so two of the men went to the back

door and looked out. Approximately 50 feet away and coming

toward them was a creature wearing a glowing silvery suit. It

was about three and one-half feet tall with a large round head

and very long arms. It had large webbed hands which were

equipped with claws. The two Suttons grabbed a twelve gauge

shotgun and a .22 caliber pistol, and fired at close range. They

could hear the pellets and bullet ricochet as if off of metal.

The creature was knocked down, but jumped up and scrambled away.

The Suttons retreated into the house, turned off all inside

lights, and turned on the porch light. At that moment, one of

the women who was peeking out of the dining room window

discovered that a creature with some sort of helmet and wide slit

eyes was peeking back at her. She screamed, the men rushed in

and started shooting. The creature was knocked backwards but

again scrambled away without apparent harm. More shooting

occurred (a total of about 50 rounds) over the next 20 minutes

and the creatures finally left (perhaps feeling unwelcome?)

After about a two hour wait (for safety), the Suttons left too.

By the time the police got there, the aliens were gone but the

Suttons would not move back to the farm. They sold it and

departed. This reported incident does bear out the contention

though that humans are dangerous. At no time in the story did

the supposed aliens shoot back, although one is left with the

imprssion that the described creatures were having fun scaring

humans.

33.5 ATTEMPTS AT SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

In any scientific endeavor, the first step is to aquire

data, the second step to classify the data, and the third step to

form hypothesis. The hypothesis are tested by repeating the

entire process, with each cycle resulting in an increase in

understanding (we hope). The UFO phenomenon does not yield

readily to this approach because the data taken so far exhibits

both excessive variety and vagueness. The vagueness is caused in

part by the lack of preparation of the observer…very few people

leave their house knowing that they are going to see a UFO that

evening. Photographs are overexposed or underexposed, and rarely

in color. Hardly anyone carries around a radiation counter or

magnetometer. And, in addition to this, there is a very high

level of “noise” in the data.

The noise consists of mistaken reports of known natural

phenomena, hoaxes, reports by unstable individuals and mistaken

removal of data regarding possible unnatural or unknown natural

phenomena (by overzealous individuals who are trying to eliminate

all data due to known natural phenomena). In addition, those

data, which do appear to be valid, exhibit an excessive amount of

variety relative to the statistical samples which are available.

This has led to very clumsy classification systems, which in turn

provide quite unfertile ground for formulation of hypothesis.

One hypothesis which looked promising for a time was that of

ORTHOTENY (i.e., UFO sightings fall on “great circle” routes).

At first, plots of sightings seemed to verify the concept of

orthoteny but recent use of computers has revealed that even

random numbers yield “great circle” plots as neatly as do UFO

sightings.

There is one solid advance that has been made though.

Jacques and Janine Vallee have taken a particular type of UFO –

namely those that are lower than tree-top level when sighted –

and plotted the UFO’s estimated diameter versus the estimated

distance from the observer. The result yields an average

diameter of 5 meters with a very characteristic drop for short

viewing distances. This behavior at the extremes of the curve is

well known to astronomers and psychologists as the “moon

illusion.” The illusion only occurs when the object being viewed

is a real, physical object. Because this implies that the

observers have viewed a real object, it permits us to accept also

their statement that these particular UFO’s had a rotational axis

of symmetry.

Another, less solid, advance made by the Vallee’s was their

plotting of the total number of sightings per week versus the

date. They did this for the time span from 1947 to 1962, and

then attempted to match the peaks of the curve (every 2 years 2

months) to the times of Earth-Mars conjunction (every 2 years 1.4

months). The match was very good between 1950 and 1956 but was

poor outside those limits. Also, the peaks were not only at the

times of Earth-Mars conjunction but also roughly at the first

harmonic (very loosely, every 13 months). This raises the

question why should UFO’s only visit Earth when Mars is in

conjunction and when it is on the opposite side of the sun.

Obviously, the conjunction periodicity of Mars is not the final

answer. As it happens, there is an interesting possibility to

consider. Suppose Jupiter’s conjunctions were used; they are

every 13.1 months. That would satisfy the observed periods

nicely, except for every even data peak being of different

magnitude from every odd data peak. Perhaps a combination of

Martian, Jovian, and Saturnian (and even other planetary)

conjunctions will be necessary to match the frequency plot…if

it can be matched.

Further data correlation is quite difficult. There are a

large number of different saucer shapes but this may mean little.

For example, look at the number of different types of aircraft

which are in use in the U. S. Air Force alone.

In is obvious that intensive scientific study is needed in

this area; no such study has yet been undertaken at the necessary

levels of intensity needed. Something that must be guarded

against in any such study is the trap of implicity assuming that

our knowledge of Physics (or any other branch of science) is

complete. An example of one such trap is selecting a group of

physical laws which we now accept as valid, and assume that they

will never be super-ceded.

Five such laws might be:

1) Every action must have an opposite and equal reaction.

2) Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle

with a force proportional to the product of the masses and

inversely as the square of the distance.

3) Energy, mass and momentum are conserved.

4) No material body can have a speed as great as c, the speed of

light in free space.

5) The maximum energy, E, which can be obtained from a body at

rest is E=mc2, where m is the rest mass of the body.

Laws numbered 1 and 3 seem fairly safe, but let us hesitate

and take another look. Actually, law number 3 is only valid

(now) from a relativistic viewpoint; and for that matter so are

laws 4 and 5. But relativity completely revised these physical

concepts after 1915, before then Newtonian mechanics were

supreme. We should also note that general relativity has not yet

been verified. Thus we have the peculiar situation of five laws

which appear to deny the possibility of intelligent alien control

of UFO’s, yet three of the laws are recent in concept and may not

even be valid. Also, law number 2 has not yet been tested under

conditions of large relative speeds or accelerations. We should

not deny the possibility of alien control of UFO’s on the basis

of preconceived notions not established as related or relevant to

the UFO’s.

33.6 CONCLUSION

From available information, the UFO phenomenon appears to

have been global in nature for almost 50,000 years. The majority

of known witnesses have been reliable people who have seen

easily-explained natural phenomena, and there appears to be no

overall positive correlation with population density. The

entire phenomenon could be psychological in nature but that is

quite doubtful. However, psychological factors probably do enter

the data picture as “noise.” The phenomenon could also be

entirely due to known and unknown phenomena (with some

psychological “noise” added in) but that too is questionable in

view of some of the available data.

This leaves us with the unpleasant possibility of alien

visitors to our planet, or at least of alien controlled UFO’s.

However, the data are not well correlated, and what questionable

data there are suggest the existence of at least three and maybe

four different groups of aliens (possibly at different states of

development). This too is difficult to accept. It implies the

existence of intelligent life on a majority of the planets in our

solar system, or a surprisingly strong interest in Earth by

members of other solar systems.

A solution to the UFO problem may be obtained by the long

and diligent effort of a large group of well financed and

competent scientists, unfortunately there is no evidence

suggesting that such an effort is going to be made. However,

even if such an effort were made, there is no guarantee of

success because of the isolated and sporatic nature of the

sightings. Also, there may be nothing to find, and that would

mean a long search with no profit at the end. The best thing to

do is to keep an open and skeptical mind, and not take an extreme

position on any side of the question.

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