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INTRODUCTORY SPACE SCIENCE – VOLUME II – DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS – USAF Edited
by:

Major Donald G. Carpenter Co-Editor:

Lt. Colonel Edward R. Therkelson CHAPTER XIII UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS

What is an Unidentified Flying Object (UFO)? Well, according to United States
Air Force Regulation 80-17 (dated 19 September 1966), a UFO is “Any”
aerial Phenomenon or object which is unknown or appears to be out of the
ordinary to the observer.” This is a very broad definition which applies
equally well to one individual seeing his first noctilucent cloud at twilight as
it does to another individual seeing his first helicopter.

However, at present most people consider the term UFO to mean an object which
behaves in a strange or erratic manner while moving through the Earth’s
atmosphere. That strange phenomenon has evoked strong emotions and great
curiosity among a large segment of our world’s population. The average person is
interested because he loves a mystery, the professional military man is involved
because of the possible threat to national security, and some scientists are
interested because of the basic curiosity that led them into becoming
researchers.

The literature on UFO’s is so vast, and the stories so many and varied, that
we can only present a sketchy outline of the subject in this chapter.

That outline includes description classifications, operational domains
(temporal and spatial), some theories as to the nature of the UFO phenomenon,
human reactions, attempts to attack the problem scientifically, and some
tentative conclusions. If you wish to read further in this area, the references
provide an excellent starting point.

33.1 DESCRIPTIONS

One of the greatest problems you encounter when attempting to catalog UFO
sightings, is selection of a system for cataloging. No effective system has yet
been devised, although a number of different systems have been proposed. The net
result is that almost all UFO data are either treated in the form of individual
cases, or in the forms of inadequate classification systems. However, these
systems do tend to have some common factors, and a collection of these factors
is as follows:

a. Size

b. Shape (disc, ellipse, football, etc.)

c. Luminosity

d. Color

e. Number of UFO’s

(Page Two)

Behavior:

a. Location (altitude, direction, etc.)

b. Patterns of paths (straight line, climbing, zig-zagging, etc.)

c. Flight Characteristics (wobbling, fluttering, etc.)

d. Periodicity of sightings

e. Time duration

f. Curiosity or inquisitiveness

g. Avoidance

h. Hostility

Associated Effects:

a. Electro-Magnetic (compass, radio, ignition systems, etc.)

b. Radiation (burns, induced radioactivity, etc.)

c. Ground disturbance (dust stirred up, leaves moved, standing wave

d. Sound (none, hissing, humming, roaring, thunderclaps, etc.)

e. Vibration (weak, strong, slow, fast)

f. Smell (ozone or other odor)

g. Flame (how much, where, when, color)

h. Smoke or cloud (amount, color, persistence)

i. Debris (type, amount, color, persistence)

j. Inhibition of voluntary movement by observers

k. Sighting of “creatures” or “beings”

After Effects:

a. Burned areas or animals

b. Depressed or flattened areas

c. Dead or missing animals

d. Mentally disturbed people

e. Missing items

We make no attempt here to present available data in terms of the foregoing
descriptors.

( Page Three )

33.2 OPERATIONAL DOMAINS – TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL

What we will do here is to present evidence that UFO’s are a global
phenomenon which may have persisted for many thousands of years. During this
discussion, please remember that the more ancient the reports the less
sophisticated the observer. Not only were the ancient observers lacking the
terminology necessary to describe complex devices (such as present day
helicopters) but they were also lacking the concepts necessary to understand the
true nature of such things as television, spaceships, rockets, nuclear weapons
and radiation effects. To some, the most advanced technological concept was a
war chariot with knife blades attached to the wheels. By the same token, the
very lack of accurate terminology and descriptions leaves the more ancient
reports open to considerable misinterpretation, and it may well be that present
evaluations of individual reports are completely wrong. Nevertheless, let us
start with an intriguing story in one of the oldest chronicles of India…the
Book of Dzyan.

The book is a group of “story-teller” legends which were finally
gathered in manuscript form when man learned to write. One of the stories is of
a small group of beings who supposedly came to Earth many thousands of years ago
in a metal craft which orbited the Earth several times before landing. As told
in the Book “These beings lived to themselves and were revered by the
humans among whom they had settled. But eventually differences arose among them
and they divided their numbers, several of the men and women and some children
settled in another city, where they were promptly installed as rulers by the
awe-stricken populace.

“Separation did not bring peace to these people and finally their anger
reached a point where the ruler of the original city took with him a small
number of his warriors and they rose into the air in a huge shining metal
vessel. While they were many leagues from the city of their enemies, they
launched a great shining lance that rode on a beam of light. It burst apart in
the city of their enemies with a great ball of flame that shot up to the
heavens, almost to the stars. All those who were in the city were horribly
burned and even those who were not in the city – but nearby – were burned also.
Those who looked upon the lance and the ball of fire were blinded forever
afterward. Those who entered the city on foot became ill and died. Even the dust
of the city was poisoned, as were the rivers that flowed through it. Men dared
not go near it, and it gradually crumbled into dust and was forgotten by
men.”

“When the leader saw what he had done to his own people he retired to
his palace and refused to see anyone. Then he gathered about him those warriors
who remained, and their wives and children, and they entered their vessels and
rose one by one into the sky and sailed away. Nor did they return.”

( Page Four )

Could this foregoing legend really be an account of an extraterrestrial
colonization, complete with guided missle, nuclear warhead and radiation
effects? It is difficult to assess the validity of that explanation…

just as it is difficult to explain why Greek, Roman and Nordic Mythology all
discuss wars and contacts among their “Gods.” (Even the Bible records
conflict between the legions of God and Satan.) Could it be that each group
recorded their parochial view of what was actually a global conflict among alien
colonists or visitors? Or is it that man has led such a violent existence that
he tends to expect conflict and violence among even his gods?

Evidence of perhaps an even earlier possible contact was uncovered by Tschi
Pen Lao of the University of Peking. He discovered astonishing carvings in
granite on a mountain in Hunan Province and on an island in Lake Tungting. These
carvings have been evaluated as 47,000 years old, and they show people with
large trunks (breathing apparatus?…or “elephant” heads shown on
human bodies? Remember, the Egyptians often represented their gods as animal
heads on human bodies.)

Only 8,000 years ago, rocks were sculpted in the Tassili plateau of Sahara,
depicting what appeared to be human beings but with strange round heads
(helmets? or “sun” heads on human bodies?) And even more recently, in
the Bible, Genesis (6:4) tells of angels from the sky mating with women of
Earth, who bore them children. Genesis 19:3 tells of Lot meeting two angels in
the desert and his later feeding them at his house. The Bible also tells a
rather unusual story of Ezekiel who witnessed what has been interpreted by some
to have been a spacecraft or aircraft landing near the Chebar River in Chaldea
(593 B.C.).

Even the Irish have recorded strange visitations. In the Speculum Regali in
Konungs Skuggsa (and other accounts of the era about 956 A.D.) are numerous
stories of “demonships” in the skies. In one case a rope from one such
ship became entangled with part of a church. A man from the ship climbed down
the rope to free it, but was seized by the townspeople. The bishop made the
people release the man, who climbed back to the ship, where the crew cut the
rope and the ship rose and sailed out of sight.

In all of his actions, the climbing man appeared as if he were swimming in
water. Stories such as this makes one wonder if the legends of the “little
people” of Ireland were based upon imagination alone.

About the same time, in Lyons (France) three men and a women supposedly
descended from an airship or spaceship and were captured by a mob. These
foreigners admitted to being wizards, and were killed. (No mention is made of
the methods employed to extract the admissions.) Many documented UFO sightings
occurred throughout the Middle Ages, including an especially startling one of a
UFO over London on 16 December 1742. However, we do not have room to include any
more of the Middle Ages sightings. Instead, two “more-recent”
sightings are contained in this section to bring us up to modern times.

( Page Five )

In a sworn statement dated 21 April 1897, a prosperous and prominent farmer
named Alexander Hamilton (Le Roy, Kansas, U.S.A.) told of an attack upon his
cattle at about 10:30 p.m. the previous Monday. He, his son, and his tenant
grabbed axes and ran some 700 feet from the house to the cow lot where a great
cigar-shaped ship about 300 feet long floated some 30 feet above the cattle. It
had a carriage underneath which was brightly lighted within (dirigible and
gondola?) and which had numerous windows.

Inside were six strange looking beings jabbering in a foreign language.

These beings suddenly became aware of Hamilton and the others. They
immediately turned a searchlight on the farmer, and also turned on some power
which sped up a turbine wheel (about 30 ft diameter) located under the craft.
The ship rose, taking with it a two-year old heifer which was roped about the
neck by a cable of one-half inch thick, red material. The next day a neighbor,
Link Thomas, found the animal’s hide, legs and head in his field. He was
mystified at how the remains got to where they were because of the lack of
tracks in the soft soil. Alexander Hamilton’s sworn statement was accompanied by
an affidavit as to his veracity. The affidavit was signed by ten of the local
leading citizens.

On the evening of 4 November 1957 at Fort Itaipu, Brazil, two sentries noted
a “new star” in the sky. The “star” grew in size and within
seconds stopped over the fort. It drifted slowly downward, was as large as a big
aircraft, and was surround by a strong orange glow. A distinct humming sound was
heard, and then the heat struck. One sentry collapsed almost immediately, the
other managed to slide to shelter under the heavy cannons where his loud cries
awoke the garrison. While the troops were scrambling towards their battle
stations, complete electrical failure occurred.

There was panic until the lights came back on but a number of men still
managed to see an orange glow leaving the area at high speed. Both sentries were
found badly burned…one unconscious and the other incoherent, suffering from
deep shock.

Thus, UFO sightings not only appear to extend back to 47,000 years through
time but also are global in nature. One has the feeling that this phenomenon
deserves some sort of valid scientific investigation, even if it is a low level
effort.

33.3 SOME THEORIES AS TO THE NATURE OF THE UFO PHENOMENON There are very few
cohesive theories as to the nature of UFO’s. Those theories that have been
advanced can be collected in five groups:

a. Mysticism

b. Hoaxes, and rantings due to unstable personalities

c. Secret Weapons

d. Natural Phenomena

e. Alien visitors

(Page Six)

Mysticism

It is believed by some cults that the mission of UFO’s and their crews is a
spiritual one, and that all materialistic efforts to determine the UFO’s nature
are doomed to failure.

Hoaxes and Rantings due to Unstable Personalities

Some have suggested that all UFO reports were the results of pranks and
hoaxes, or were made by people with unstable personalities. This attitude was
particularly prevalent during the time period when the Air Force investigation
was being operated under the code name of Project Grudge. A few airlines even
went as far as to ground every pilot who reported seeing a “flying
saucer.” The only way for the pilot to regain flight status was to undergo
a psychiatric examination. There was a noticeable decline in pilot reports
during this time interval, and a few interpreted this decline to prove that
UFO’s were either hoaxes or the result of unstable personalities. It is of
interest that NICAP (The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena)
even today still receives reports from commercial pilots who neglect to notify
either the Air Force or their own airline.

There are a number of cases which indicate that not all reports fall in the
hoax category. We will examine one such case now. It is the Socorro, New Mexico
sighting made by police Sergeant Lonnie Zamora.

Sergeant Zamora was patrolling the streets of Socorro on 24 April 1964 when
he saw a shiny object drift down into an area of gullies on the edge of town. He
also heard a loud roaring noise which sounded as if an old dynamite shed located
out that way had exploded. He immediately radioed police headquarters, and drove
out toward the shed. Zamora was forced to stop about 150 yards away from a deep
gully in which there appeared to be an overturned car. He radioed that he was
investigating a possible wreck, and then worked his car up onto the mesa and
over toward the edge of the gully. He parked short, and when he walked the final
few feet to the edge, he was amazed to see that it was not a car but instead was
a weird eggshaped object about fifteen feet long, white in color and resting on
short, metal legs. Beside it, unaware of his presence were two humanoids dressed
in silvery coveralls. They seemed to be working on a portion of the underside of
the object. Zamora was still standing there, surprised, when they suddenly
noticed him and dove out of sight around the object.

Zamora also headed the other way, back toward his car. He glanced back at the
object just as a bright blue flame shot down from the underside.

Within seconds the eggshaped thing rose out of the gully with “an ear-

-splitting roar.” The object was out of sight over the nearby mountains
almost immediately, and Sergeant Zamora was moving the opposite direction almost
as fast when he met Sergeant Sam Chavez who was responding to Zamora’ s earlier
radio calls. Together they investigated the gully and found the bushes charred
and still smoking where the blue flame had jetted down on them. About the
charred area were four deep marks where the metal legs had been. Each mark was
three and one half inches deep, and was circular in shape. The sand in the gully
was very hard packed so no sign of the humanoids’ footprints could be found. An
official investigation was launched that same day, and all data obtained
supported the stories of Zamora and Chavez. It is rather difficult to label this
episode a hoax, and it is also doubtful that both Zamora and Chavez shared
portions of the same hallucination.

(Page Seven)

Secret Weapons

A few individuals have proposed that UFO’s are actually advanced weapon
systems, and that their natures must not be revealed. Very few people accept
this as a credible suggestion.

Natural Phenomena

It has also been suggested that at least some, and possibly all, of the UFO
cases were just mis-interpreted manifestations of natural phenomena.

Undoubtedly this suggestion has some merit. People have reported, as UFO’s,
objects which were conclusively proven to be balloons (weather and skyhook), the
planet Venus, man-made artificial satellites, normal aircraft, unusual cloud
formations, and lights from ceilometers (equipment projecting light beams on
cloud bases to determine the height of the aircraft visual ceiling)

It is also suspected that people have reported mirages, optical illusions,
swamp gas and ball lightning (a poorly-understood discharge of electrical energy
in a spheroidal or ellipsoidal shape…some charges have lasted for up to
fifteen minutes but the ball is usually no bigger than a large orange.

) But it is difficult to tell a swamp dweller that the strange, fast-moving
light he saw in the sky was swamp gas; and it is just as difficult to tell a
farmer that a bright UFO in the sky is the same ball lightning that he has seen
rolling along his fence wires in dry weather. Thus accidental mis-identification
of what might well be natural phenomena breeds mistrust and disbelief; it leads
to the hasty conclusion that the truth is deliberatly not being told. One last
suggestion of interest has been made, that the UFO’s were plasmoids from
space…concentrated blobs of solar wind that succeeded in reaching the surface
of the Earth. Somehow this last suggestion does not seem to be very plausible;
perhaps because it ignores such things as penetration of Earth’s magnetic field.

Alien Visitors

The most stimulating theory for us is that the UFO’s are material objects
which are either “Manned” or remote-controlled by beings who are alien
to this planet. There is some evidence supporting this viewpoint.

In addition to police Sergeant Lonnie Zamora’s experience, let us consider
the case of Barney and Betty Hill. On a trip through New England they lost two
hours on the night of 19 September 1961 without even realizing it.

However, after that night both Barney and Betty began developing
psychological problems which eventually grew sufficienty severe that they
submitted themselves to psychiatric examination and treatment. During the course
of treatment hypnotherapy was used, and it yielded remarkably detailed and
similar stories from both Barney and Betty. Essentially they had been
hypnotically kidnapped, taken aboard a UFO, submitted to two-hour physicals, and
released with posthypnotic suggestions to forget the entire incident. The
evidence is rather strong that this is what the Hills, even in their
subconscious, believe happened to them. And it is of particular importance that
after the “posthypnotic block” was removed, both of the Hills ceased
having their psychological problems.

(Page Eight)

The Hill’s description of the aliens was similar to descriptions provided in
other cases, but this particular type of alien appears to be in the minority.
The most commonly described alien is about three and one half feet tall, has a
round head (helmet?), arms reaching to or below his knees, and is wearing a
silvery space suit or coveralls. Other aliens appear to be essentially the same
as Earthmen, while still others have particularily wide (wrap around) eyes and
mouths with very thin lips. And there is a rare group reported as about four
feet tall, weight of around 35 pounds, and covered with thick hair or fur
(clothing?). Members of this last group are described as being extremely strong.
If such beings are visiting Earth, two questions arise: 1) why haven’t there
been any accidents which have revealed their presence, and 2) why haven’t they
attempted to contact us officially? The answer to the first question may exist
partially in Sergeant Lonnie Zamora’s experience, and may exist partially in the
Tunguska meteor discussed in Chapter XXIX. In that chapter it was suggested that
the Tonguska meteor was actually a comet which exploded in the atmosphere, the
ices melted and the dust spread out. Hence, no debris! However, it has also been
suggested that the Tunguska meteor was actually an alien spacecraft that entered
the atmosphere to rapidly, suffered mechanical failure, and lost its power
supply and/or weapons in a nuclear explosion. While that hypothesis may seem far
fetched, sample of tree rings from around the world reveal that, immediately
after the Tunguska meteor explosion, the level of radioactivity in the world
rose sharply for a short period of time. It is difficult to find a natural
explanation for that increase in radioactivity, although the suggestion has been
advanced that enough of the meteor’s great kinetic energy was converted into
heat (by atmospheric friction) that a fusion reaction occurred. This still
leaves us with no answer to the second question: why no contact? That question
is very easy to answer in several ways: 1) we may be the object of intensive
sociological and psychological study. In such studies you usually avoid
disturbing the test subjects’ environment; 2) you do not “contact” a
colony of ants, and humans may seem that way to any aliens (variation: a zoo is
fun to visit, but you don’t “contact” the lizards);

3) such contact may have already taken place secretly; and 4) such contact
may have already taken place on a different plane of awareness and we are not
yet sensitive to communications on such a plane. These are just a few of the
reasons. You may add to the list as you desire.

33.4 HUMAN FEAR AND HOSTILITY

Besides the foregoing reasons, contacting humans is downright dangerous.

Think about that for a moment! On the microscopic level our bodies reject and
fight (through production antibodies) any alien material; this process helps us
fight off disease but it also sometimes results in allergic reactions to
innocuous materials. On the macroscopic (psychological and sociological) level
we are antagonistic to beings that are “different”.

For proof of that, just watch how an odd child is treated by other children,
or how a minority group is socially deprived, or how the Arabs feel about the
Israelis (Chinese vs Japanese, Turks vs Greeks, etc.) In case you are hesitant
to extend that concept to the treatment of aliens let me point out that in very
ancient times, possible extraterrestrials may have been treated as Gods but in
the last two thousand years, the evidence is that any possible aliens have been
ripped apart by mobs, shot and shot at, physically assaulted, and in general
treated with fear and aggression.

(Page Nine)

In Ireland about 1,000 A.D., supposed airships were treated as “demon
ships.” In Lyons, France, “admitted” space travellers were
killed. More recently, on 24 July 1957 Russian anti-aircraft batteries on the
Kouril Islands opened fire on UFO’s. Although all Soviet anti-aircraft batteries
on the Islands were in action, no hits were made. The UFO’s were luminous and
moved very fast. We too have fired on UFO’s. About ten o’clock one morning, a
radar site near a fighter base picked up a UFO doing 700 mph.

The UFO then slowed to 100 mph, and two F-86’s were scrambled to intercept.

Eventually one F-86 closed on the UFO at about 3,000 feet altitude. The UFO
began to accelerate away but the pilot still managed to get within 500 yards of
the target for a short period of time. It was definately saucer shaped. As the
pilot pushed the F-86 at top speed, the UFO began to pull away. When the range
reached 1,000 yards, the pilot armed his guns and fired in an attempt to down
the saucer. He failed, and the UFO pulled away rapidly, vanishing in the
distance. This same basic situation may have happened on a more personal level.
On Sunday evening 21 August 1955, eight adults and three children were on the
Sutton Farm (one-half mile from Kelly, Kentucky) when, according to them, one of
the children saw a brightly glowing UFO settle behind the barn, out of sight
from where he stood.

Other witnesses on nearby farms also saw the object. However, the Suttons
dismissed it as a “shooting star,” and did not investigate.
Approximately thirty minutes later (at 8 p.m.), the family dogs began barking so
two of the men went to the back door and looked out. Approximately 50 feet away
and coming toward them was a creature wearing a glowing silvery suit. It was
about three and one-half feet tall with a large round head and very long arms.
It had large webbed hands which were equipped with claws. The two Suttons
grabbed a twelve guage shotgun and a 22 caliber pistol, and fired at close
range. They could hear the pellets and bullet ricochet as if off of metal. The
creature was knocked down, but jumped up and scrambled away. The Suttons
retreated into the house, turned off all inside lights, and turned on the
porch-light. At that moment, one of the women who was peeking out of the dining
room window discovered that a creature with some sort of helmet and wide slit
eyes was peeking back at her. She screamed, the men rushed in and started
shooting. The creature was knocked backwards but again scrambled away without
apparent harm. More shooting occurred (a total of about 50 rounds) over the next
20 minutes and the creatures finally left (perhaps feeling unwelcome?) After
about a two hour wait (for safety), the Suttons left too. By the time the police
got there, the aliens were gone but the Suttons would not move back to the farm.

They sold it and departed. This reported incident does bear out the
contention though that humans are dangerous. At no time in the story did the
supposed aliens shoot back, although one is left with the impression that the
described creatures were having fun scaring humans.

33.5 ATTEMPTS AT SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

In any scientific endeavor, the first step is to aquire data, the second step
to clasify the data, and the third step to form hypothesis.

The hypothesis are tested by repeating the entire process, with each cycle
resulting in an increase in understanding (we hope). The UFO phenomenon does not
yield readily to this approach because the data taken so far exhibits both
excessive variety and vagueness. The vagueness is caused in part by the lack of
preparation of the observer…very few people leave their house knowing that
they are going to see a UFO that evening.

Photographs are overexposed or underexposed, and rarely in color. Hardly
anyone carries around a radiation counter or magnetometer. And, in addition to
this, there is a very high level of “noise” in the data.

(Page Ten)

The noise consists of mistaken reports of known natural phenomena, hoaxes,
reports by unstable individuals and mistaken removal of data regarding possible
unnatural or unknown natural phenomena (by overzealous individuals who are
trying to eliminate all data due to known natural phenomena). In addition, those
data, which do appear to be valid, exhibit an excessive amount of variety
relative to the statistical samples which are available. This has led to very
clumsy classification systems, which in turn provide quite unfertile ground for
formulation of hypothesis.

One hypothesis which looked promising for a time was that of ORTHOTENY (i.e.,
UFO sightings fall on “great circle” routes). At first, plots of
sightings seemed to verify the concept of orthoteny but recent use of computers
has revealed that even random numbers yield “great circle” plots as
neatly as do UFO sightings.

There is one solid advance that has been made though. Jacques and Janine
Vallee have taken a particular type of UFO – namely those that are lower than
tree-top level when sighted – and plotted the UFO’s estimated diameter versus
the estimated distance from the observer. The result yields an average diameter
of 5 meters with a very characteristic drop for short viewing distances, and
rise for long viewing distances. This behavior at the extremes of the curve is
well known to astronomers and psychologists as the “moon illusion.”
The illusion only occurs when the object being viewed is a real, physical
object. Because this implies that the observers have viewed a real object, it
permits us to accept also their statement that these particular UFO’s had a
rotational axis of symmetry.

Another, less solid, advance made by the Vallee’s was their plotting of the
total number of sightings per week versus the date. They did this for the time
span from 1947 to 1962, and then attempted to match the peaks of the curve
(every 2 years 2 months) to the times of Earth-Mars conjuction (every 2 years
1.4 months). The match was very good between 1950 and 1956 but was poor outside
those limits. Also, the peaks were not only at the times of Earth-Mars
conjunction but also roughly at the first harmonic (very loosely, every 13
months). This raises the question why should UFO’s only visit Earth when Mars is
in conjunction and when it is on the opposite side of the sun. Obviously, the
conjunction periodicity of Mars is not the final answer. As it happens, there is
an interesting possibility to consider. Suppose Jupiter’s conjunctions were
used; they are every 13.1 months. That would satisfy the observed periods
nicely, except for every even data peak being of different magnitude from every
odd data peak.

Perhaps a combination of Martian, Jovian, and Saturnian (and even other
planetary) conjunctions will be necessary to match the frequency plot…

if it can be matched.

Further data correlation is quite difficult. There are a large number of
different saucer shapes but this may mean little. For example, look at the
number of different types of aircraft which are in use in the U.S. Air Force
alone.

It is obvious that intensive scientific study is needed in this area;

no such study has yet been undertaken at the necessary levels of intensity
and support. One thing that must be guarded against in any such study is the
trap of implicity assuming that our knowledge of Physics (or any other branch of
science) is complete. An example of one such trap is selecting a group of
physical laws which we now accept as valid, and assume that they will never be
superceded.

(Page Eleven)

Five such laws might be:

1) Every action must have an opposite and equal reaction.

2) Every particle in the univers attracts every other particle with a force
proportional to the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the
distance.

3) Energy, mass and momentum are conserved.

4) No material body can have a speed as great as c, the speed of light in
free space.

5) The maximum energy, E, which can be obtained from a body at rest is E=mc2,
where m is the rest mass of the body.

Laws numbered 1 and 3 seem fairly safe, but let us hesitate and take another
look. Actually, law number 3 is only valid (now) from a relativisti c viewpoint;
and for that matter so are laws 4 and 5. But relativity completely revised these
physical concepts after 1915, before then Newtonian mechanics were supreme. We
should also note that general relativity has not yet been verified. Thus we have
the peculiar situation of five laws which appear to deny the possibility of
intelligent alien control of UFO’s, yet three of the laws are recent in concept
and may not even be valid.

Also, law number 2 has not yet been tested under conditions of large relativ
e speeds or accelerations. We should not deny the possibility of alien control
of UFO’s on the basis of preconceived notions not established as related or
relevant to the UFO’s.

33.6 CONCLUSION

From available information, the UFO phenomenon appears to have been global in
nature for almost 50,000 years. The majority of known witnesses have been
reliable people who have seen easily-explained natural phenomena, and there
appears to be no overall positive correlation with population density. The
entire phenomenon could be psychological in nature but that is quite doubtful.
However, psychological factors probably do enter the data picture as
“noise.” The phenomenon could also be entirely due to known and
unknown phenomena (with some psychological “noise” added in) but that
too is questionable in view of some of the available data.

This leaves us with the unpleasant possibility of alien visitors to our
planet, or at least of alien controlled UFO’s. However, the data are not well
correlated, and what questionable data there are suggest the existence of at
least three and maybe four different groups of aliens (possibly at different
stages of development). This too is difficult to accept. It implies the
existence of intelligent life on a majority of the planets in our solar system,
or a surprisingly strong interest in Earth by members of other solar systems.

(Page Twelve)

A solution to the UFO problem may be obtained by the long and diligent effort
of a large group of well financed and competant scientists, unfortunately there
is no evidence suggesting that such an effort is going to be made. However, even
if such an effort were made, there is no guarantee of success because of the
isolated and sporatic nature of the sightings. Also, there may be nothing to
find, and that would mean a long search with no proff at the end. The best thing
to do is to keep an open and skeptical mind, and not take an extreme position on
any side of the question.

This document is available through the Ufo Info Service.

For more information write to:

CUFON C/O UFO INFORMATION SERVICE P.O. Box 832 MERCER ISLAND, WA 98040 – 0219

OR CALL (206) 721-5035

This is the original Air Force Document.

Thank You